Expertise Traits for 2023 – O’Reilly

This 12 months’s report on the O’Reilly studying platform takes an in depth take a look at how our clients used the platform. Our purpose is to search out out what they’re fascinated by now and the way that modified from 2021—and to make some predictions about what 2023 will carry.

Rather a lot has occurred up to now 12 months. In 2021, we noticed that GPT-3 might write tales and even assist folks write software program; in 2022, ChatGPT confirmed which you could have conversations with an AI. Now builders are utilizing AI to jot down software program. Late in 2021, Mark Zuckerberg began speaking about “the metaverse,” and pretty quickly, everybody was speaking about it. However the dialog cooled nearly as rapidly because it began. Again then, cryptocurrency costs had been approaching a excessive, and NFTs had been “a factor”…then they crashed.

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What’s actual, and what isn’t? Our information reveals us what O’Reilly’s 2.8 million customers are literally engaged on and what they’re studying day-to-day. That’s a greater measure of know-how traits than something that occurs among the many Twitterati. The solutions often aren’t present in large spectacular modifications; they’re present in smaller shifts that mirror how individuals are turning the massive concepts into real-world merchandise. The alerts are sometimes complicated: for instance, curiosity in content material in regards to the “large three” cloud suppliers is barely down, whereas curiosity in content material about cloud migration is considerably up. What does that imply? Corporations are nonetheless “transferring into the cloud”—that development hasn’t modified—however as some transfer ahead, others are pulling again (“repatriation”) or suspending tasks. It’s gratifying after we see an necessary subject come alive: zero belief, which displays an necessary rethinking of how safety works, confirmed large progress. However different know-how subjects (together with some favorites) are hitting plateaus and even declining.

Whereas we don’t focus on the financial system as such, it’s at all times within the background. Whether or not or not we’re truly in a recession, many in our trade understand us to be so, and that notion may be self-fulfilling. Corporations that went on a hiring spree over the previous few years are actually realizing that they made a mistake—and that features each giants that do layoffs within the tens of 1000’s and startups that thought that they had entry to an infinite stream of VC money. In flip, that actuality influences the actions people take to safeguard their jobs or improve their worth ought to they should discover a new one.


This report is predicated on our inside “items considered” metric, which is a single metric throughout all of the media varieties included in our platform: ebooks, after all, but in addition movies and reside coaching programs. We use items considered as a result of it measures what folks truly do on our platform. But it surely’s necessary to acknowledge the metric’s shortcomings; as George Field (nearly)1 stated, “All metrics are unsuitable, however some are helpful.” Items considered tends to low cost the utilization of recent subjects: if a subject is new, there isn’t a lot content material, and customers can’t view content material that doesn’t exist. As a counter to our concentrate on items considered, we’ll take a short take a look at searches, which aren’t constrained by the supply of content material. For the needs of this report, items considered is at all times normalized to 1, the place 1 is assigned to the best variety of items in any group of subjects.

It’s additionally necessary to do not forget that these “items” are “considered” by our customers. Whether or not they entry the platform by means of particular person or company accounts, O’Reilly members are usually utilizing the platform for work. Regardless of discuss of “web time,” our trade doesn’t change radically from daily, month to month, and even 12 months to 12 months. We don’t wish to low cost or undervalue those that are choosing up new concepts and abilities—that’s an especially necessary use of the platform. But when an organization’s IT division had been engaged on its ecommerce web site in 2021, they had been nonetheless engaged on that web site in 2022, they gained’t cease engaged on it in 2023, they usually’ll be engaged on it in 2024. They is perhaps including AI-driven options or transferring it to the cloud and orchestrating it with Kubernetes, however they’re not prone to drop React (and even PHP) to maneuver to the newest cool framework.

Nevertheless, when the newest cool factor demonstrates a number of years of stable progress, it could simply change into one of many well-established applied sciences. That’s taking place now with Rust. Rust isn’t going to take over from Java and Python tomorrow, not to mention in 2024 or 2025, however that’s a motion that’s actual. Lastly, it’s smart to be skeptical about “noise.” Adjustments of 1 or two proportion factors usually imply little. However when a mature know-how that’s main its class stops rising, it’s honest to wonder if it’s hit a plateau and is en path to turning into a legacy know-how.

The Largest Image

We are able to get a high-level view of platform utilization by utilization for our top-level subjects. Content material about software program growth was essentially the most extensively used (31% of all utilization in 2022), which incorporates software program structure and programming languages. Software program growth is adopted by IT operations (18%), which incorporates cloud, and by information (17%), which incorporates machine studying and synthetic intelligence. Enterprise (13%), safety (8%), and internet and cell (6%) come subsequent. That’s a reasonably good image of our core viewers’s pursuits: solidly technical, centered on software program moderately than {hardware}, however with a big stake in enterprise subjects.

Whole platform utilization grew by 14.1% 12 months over 12 months, greater than doubling the 6.2% achieve we noticed from 2020 to 2021. The subjects that noticed the best progress had been enterprise (30%), design (23%), information (20%), safety (20%), and {hardware} (19%)—all within the neighborhood of 20% progress. Software program growth grew by 12%, which sounds disappointing, though in any research like this, the biggest classes have a tendency to indicate the least change. Utilization of assets about IT operations solely elevated by 6.9%. That’s a shock, significantly for the reason that operations world remains to be coming to phrases with cloud computing.

O’Reilly studying platform utilization by subject 12 months over 12 months

Whereas this report focuses on content material utilization, a fast take a look at search information provides a really feel for the preferred subjects, along with the quickest rising (and quickest declining) classes. Python, Kubernetes, and Java had been the preferred search phrases. Searches for Python confirmed a 29% year-over-year achieve, whereas searches for Java and Kubernetes are nearly unchanged: Java gained 3% and Kubernetes declined 4%. But it surely’s additionally necessary to notice what searches don’t present: after we take a look at programming languages, we’ll see that content material about Java is extra closely used than content material about Python (though Python is rising sooner).

Equally, the precise use of content material about Kubernetes confirmed a slight year-over-year achieve (4.4%), regardless of the decline within the variety of searches. And regardless of being the second-most-popular search time period, items considered for Kubernetes had been solely 41% of these for Java and 47% of these for Python. This distinction between search information and utilization information might imply that builders “reside” of their programming languages, not of their container instruments. They should find out about Kubernetes and ceaselessly must ask particular questions—and people wants generate a variety of searches. However they’re working with Java or Python consistently, and that generates extra items considered.

The Go programming language is one other attention-grabbing case. “Go” and “Golang” are distinct search strings, however they’re clearly the identical subject. If you add searches for Go and Golang, the Go language strikes from fifteenth and sixteenth place as much as fifth, simply behind machine studying. Nevertheless, change in use of the search time period was comparatively small: a 1% decline for Go, a 8% improve for Golang. Taking a look at Go as a subject class, we see one thing totally different: utilization of content material about Go is considerably behind the leaders, Java and Python, however nonetheless the third highest on our record, and with a 20% achieve from 2021 to 2022.

Taking a look at searches is worth it, nevertheless it’s necessary to understand that search information and utilization information usually inform totally different tales.

Prime searches on the O’Reilly studying platform 12 months over 12 months

Searches can even give a fast image of which subjects are rising. The highest three year-over-year positive factors had been for the CompTIA Linux+ certification, the CompTIA A+ certification, and transformers (the AI mannequin that’s led to large progress in pure language processing). Nevertheless, none of those are what we would name “high tier” search phrases: that they had ranks starting from 186 to 405. (That stated, needless to say the variety of distinctive search phrases we see is effectively over 1,000,000. It’s lots simpler for a search time period with a number of thousand queries to develop than it’s for a search time period with 100,000 queries.)

The sharpest declines in search frequency had been for cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Java 11. There aren’t any actual surprises right here. This has been a tricky 12 months for cryptocurrency, with a number of scandals and crashes. As of late 2021, Java 11 was not the present long-term assist (LTS) launch of Java; that’s moved on to Java 17.

What Our Customers Are Doing (in Element)

That’s a high-level image. However the place are our customers truly spending their time? To know that, we’ll must take a extra detailed take a look at our subject hierarchy—not simply on the subjects on the high degree however at these within the internal (and innermost) layers.

Software program Improvement

The most important change we’ve seen is the expansion in curiosity in coding practices; 35% year-over-year progress can’t be ignored, and signifies that software program builders are extremely motivated to enhance their observe of programming. Coding practices is a broad subject that encompasses lots—software program upkeep, test-driven growth, sustaining legacy software program, and pair programming are all subcategories. Two smaller classes which are carefully associated to coding practices additionally confirmed substantial will increase: utilization of content material about Git (a distributed model management system and supply code repository) was up 21%, and QA and testing was up 78%. Practices like using code repositories and steady testing are nonetheless spreading to each new builders and older IT departments. These practices are not often taught in laptop science packages, and lots of firms are simply starting to place them to make use of. Builders, each new and skilled, are studying them on the job.

Going by items considered, design patterns is the second-largest class, with a year-over-year improve of 13%. Object-oriented programming confirmed a wholesome 24% improve. The 2 are carefully associated, after all; whereas the idea of design patterns is relevant to any programming paradigm, object-oriented programming (significantly Java, C#, and C++) is the place they’ve taken maintain.

It’s price taking a more in-depth take a look at design patterns. Design patterns are options to frequent issues—they assist programmers work with out “reinventing wheels.” Above all, design patterns are a method of sharing knowledge. They’ve been abused up to now by programmers who thought software program was “good” if it used “design patterns,” and jammed as many into their code as attainable, whether or not or not it was applicable. Fortunately, we’ve gotten past that now.

What about purposeful programming? The “object versus purposeful” debates of some years in the past are over for essentially the most half. The foremost concepts behind purposeful programming may be applied in any language, and purposeful programming options have been added to Java, C#, C++, and most different main programming languages. We’re now in an age of “multiparadigm” programming. It feels unusual to conclude that object-oriented programming has established itself, as a result of in lots of ways in which was by no means unsure; it has lengthy been the paradigm of alternative for constructing giant software program programs. As our programs are rising ever bigger, object-oriented programming’s significance appears safe.

Management and administration additionally confirmed very sturdy progress (38%). Software program builders know that product growth isn’t nearly code; it depends closely on communication, collaboration, and important pondering. In addition they understand that administration or crew management might be the following step of their profession.

Lastly, we’d be remiss to not point out quantum computing. It’s the smallest subject class on this group however confirmed a 24% year-over-year achieve. The primary quantum computer systems are actually out there by means of cloud suppliers like IBM and Amazon Internet Companies (AWS). Whereas these computer systems aren’t but highly effective sufficient to do any actual work, they make it attainable to get a head begin on quantum programming. No one is aware of when quantum computer systems will likely be substantial sufficient to unravel real-world issues: possibly two years, possibly 20. However programmers are clearly fascinated by getting began.

Yr-over-year progress for software program growth subjects

Software program structure

Software program structure is a really broad class that encompasses every little thing from design patterns (which we additionally noticed underneath software program growth) to comparatively stylish subjects like serverless and event-driven structure. The most important subject on this group was, unsurprisingly, software program structure itself: a class that features books on the basics of software program structure, programs pondering, communication abilities, and way more—nearly something to do with the design, implementation, and administration of software program. Not solely was this a big class, nevertheless it additionally grew considerably: 26% from 2021 to 2022. Software program architect has clearly change into an necessary position, the following step for programming workers who wish to degree up their abilities.

For a number of years, microservices has been one of the widespread subjects in software program structure, and this 12 months is not any exception. It was the second-largest subject and confirmed 3.6% progress over 2021. Area-driven design (DDD) was the third-most-commonly-used subject, though smaller; it additionally confirmed progress (19%). Though DDD has been round for a very long time, it got here into prominence with the rise of microservices as a method to consider partitioning an software into impartial companies.

Is the comparatively low progress of microservices an indication of change? Have microservices reached a peak? We don’t suppose so, nevertheless it’s necessary to grasp the advanced relationship between microservices and monolithic architectures. Monoliths inevitably change into extra advanced over time, as bug fixes, new enterprise necessities, the necessity to scale, and different points must be addressed. Decomposing a fancy monolith into a fancy set of microservices is a difficult activity and positively one that may’t be underestimated: builders are buying and selling one sort of complexity for one more within the hope of reaching elevated flexibility and scalability long-term. Microservices are not a “cool new thought,” and builders have acknowledged that they’re not the answer to each drawback. Nevertheless, they are a superb match for cloud deployments, they usually go away an organization well-positioned to supply its companies through APIs and change into an “as a service” firm. Microservices are unlikely to say no, although they might have reached a plateau. They’ve change into a part of the IT panorama. However firms must digest the complexity trade-off.

Internet APIs, which firms use to supply companies to distant consumer software program through the net’s HTTP protocol, confirmed a really wholesome improve (76%). This improve reveals that we’re transferring much more strongly to an “API financial system,” the place essentially the most profitable firms are constructed not round merchandise however round companies accessed by means of internet APIs. That, in spite of everything, is the idea for all “software program as a service” firms; it’s the idea on which all of the cloud suppliers are constructed; it’s what ties Amazon’s enterprise empire collectively. RESTful APIs noticed a smaller improve (6%); the momentum has clearly moved from the simplicity of REST to extra advanced APIs that use JSON, GraphQL, and different applied sciences to maneuver info.

The 29% improve within the utilization of content material about distributed programs is necessary. A number of elements drive the rise in distributed programs: the transfer to microservices, the necessity to serve astronomical numbers of on-line purchasers, the top of Moore’s regulation, and extra. The time when a profitable software might run on a single mainframe—and even on a small cluster of servers in a rack—is lengthy gone. Trendy purposes run throughout a whole lot or 1000’s of computer systems, digital machines, and cloud cases, all linked by high-speed networks and information buses. That features software program operating on single laptops outfitted with multicore CPUs and GPUs. Distributed programs require designing software program that may run successfully in these environments: software program that’s dependable, that stays up even when some servers or networks go down, and the place there are as few efficiency bottlenecks as attainable. Whereas this class remains to be comparatively small, its progress reveals that software program builders have realized that every one programs are distributed programs; there isn’t any such factor as an software that runs on a single laptop.

Yr-over-year progress for software program structure and design subjects

What about serverless? Serverless appears like a wonderful know-how for implementing microservices, nevertheless it’s been giving us combined alerts for a number of years now. Some years it’s up barely; some years it’s down barely. This 12 months, it’s down 14%, and whereas that’s not a collapse, we now have to see that drop as vital. Like microservices, serverless is not a “cool new factor” in software program structure, however the lower in utilization raises questions: Are software program builders nervous in regards to the diploma of management serverless places within the arms of cloud suppliers, spinning up and shutting down cases as wanted? That could possibly be an enormous difficulty. Cloud clients wish to get their accounts payable down, cloud suppliers wish to get their accounts receivable up, and if the supplier tweaks a number of parameters that the shopper by no means sees, that steadiness might change lots. Or has serverless simply plunged into the “trough of disillusionment” from which it should ultimately emerge into the “aircraft of productiveness”? Or possibly it’s simply an thought whose time got here and went? Regardless of the motive, serverless has by no means established itself convincingly. Subsequent 12 months might give us a greater thought…or simply extra ambiguity.

Programming languages

The tales we are able to inform about programming languages are little modified from final 12 months. Java is the chief (with 1.7% year-over-year progress), adopted by Python (3.4% progress). However as we glance down the chart, we see some attention-grabbing challengers to the established order. Go’s utilization is simply 20% of Java’s, nevertheless it’s seen 20% progress. That’s substantial. C++ is hardly a brand new language—and we usually count on older languages to be extra steady—nevertheless it had 19% year-over-year progress. And Rust, with utilization that’s solely 9% of Java, had 22% progress from 2021 to 2022. These numbers don’t foreshadow a revolution—as we stated on the outset, only a few firms are going to take infrastructure written in Java and rewrite it in Go or Rust simply to allow them to be development compliant. As everyone knows, a variety of infrastructure is written in COBOL, and that isn’t going wherever. However each Rust and Go have established themselves in key areas of infrastructure: Docker and Kubernetes are each written in Go, and Rust is establishing itself within the safety neighborhood (and probably additionally the info and AI communities). Go and Rust are already pushing older languages like C++ and Java to evolve. With a number of extra years of 20% progress, Go and Rust will likely be difficult Java and Python straight, in the event that they aren’t difficult them already for greenfield tasks.

JavaScript is an anomaly on our charts: whole utilization is nineteen% of Java’s, with a 4.6% year-over-year decline. JavaScript reveals up at, or close to, the highest on most programming language surveys, similar to RedMonk’s rankings (often in a digital tie with Java and Python). Nevertheless, the TIOBE Index reveals more room between Python (first place), Java (fourth), and JavaScript (seventh)—extra according to our observations of platform utilization. We attribute JavaScript’s decline partly to the elevated affect of TypeScript, a statically typed variant of JavaScript that compiles to JavaScript (12% year-over-year improve). One factor we’ve seen over the previous few years: whereas programmers had an extended dalliance with duck typing and dynamic languages, as purposes (and groups) grew bigger, builders realized the worth of sturdy, statically typed languages (TypeScript definitely, but in addition Go and Rust, although these are much less necessary for internet growth). This shift could also be cyclical; a decade from now, we may even see a revival of curiosity in dynamic languages. One other issue is using frameworks like React, Angular, and Node.js, that are undoubtedly JavaScript however have their very own subjects in our hierarchy. Nevertheless, once you add all 4 collectively, you continue to see a 2% decline for JavaScript, with out accounting for the shift from JavaScript to TypeScript. Regardless of the motive, proper now, the pendulum appears to be swinging away from JavaScript. (For extra on frameworks, see the dialogue of internet growth.)

The opposite two languages that noticed a drop in utilization are C# (6.3%) and Scala (16%). Is that this simply noise, or is it a extra substantial decline? The change appears too giant to be a random fluctuation. Scala has at all times been a language for backend programming, as has C# (although to a lesser extent). Whereas neither language is especially previous, it appears their shine has worn off. They’re each competing poorly with Go and Rust for brand spanking new customers. Scala can be competing poorly with the newer variations of Java, which now have most of the purposeful options that originally drove curiosity in Scala.

Yr-over-year progress for programming languages


Laptop safety has been within the information ceaselessly over the previous few years. That unwelcome publicity has each revealed cracks within the safety posture of many firms and obscured some necessary modifications within the subject. The cracks are all too apparent: most organizations do a nasty job of the fundamentals. In accordance with one report, 91% of all assaults begin with a phishing electronic mail that methods a consumer into giving up their login credentials. Phishes have gotten extra frequent and more durable to detect. Fundamental safety hygiene is as necessary as ever, nevertheless it’s getting tougher. And cloud computing generates its personal issues. Corporations can not defend all of their IT programs behind a firewall; most of the servers are operating in an information middle someplace, and IT workers has no thought the place they’re or even when they exist as bodily entities.

Given this shift, it’s not stunning that zero belief, an necessary new paradigm for designing safety into distributed programs, grew 146% between 2021 and 2022. Zero belief abandons the idea that programs may be protected on some sort of safe community; all makes an attempt to entry any system, whether or not by an individual or software program, should current correct credentials. Hardening programs, whereas it obtained the least utilization, grew 91% 12 months over 12 months. Different subjects with vital progress had been safe coding (40%), superior persistent threats (55%), and software safety (46%). All of those subjects are about constructing purposes that may face up to assaults, no matter the place they run.

Governance (year-over-year improve of 72%) is a really broad subject that features just about each side of compliance and threat administration. Points like safety hygiene more and more fall underneath “governance,” as firms attempt to adjust to the necessities of insurers and regulators, along with making their operations safer. As a result of nearly all assaults begin with a phish or another sort of social engineering, simply telling staff to not give their passwords away gained’t assist. Corporations are more and more utilizing coaching packages, password managers, multifactor authentication, and different approaches to sustaining fundamental hygiene.

Yr-over-year progress for safety subjects

Community safety, which was essentially the most closely used safety subject in 2022, grew by a wholesome 32%. What drove this improve? Not using content material about firewalls, which solely grew 7%. Whereas firewalls are nonetheless helpful for shielding the IT infrastructure in a bodily workplace, they’re of restricted assist when a considerable a part of any group’s infrastructure is within the cloud. What occurs when an worker brings their laptop computer into the workplace from dwelling or takes it to a espresso store the place it’s extra weak to assault? How do you safe WiFi networks for folks working from dwelling in addition to within the workplace? The broader drawback of community safety has solely change into tougher, and these issues can’t be solved by company firewalls.

Use of content material about penetration testing and moral hacking truly decreased by 14%, though it was the second-most-heavily-used safety subject in our taxonomy (and essentially the most closely utilized in 2021).

Safety certifications

Safety professionals love their certifications. Our platform information reveals that an important certifications had been CISSP (Licensed Data Methods Safety Skilled) and CompTIA Safety+. CISSP has lengthy been the preferred safety certification. It’s a really complete certification oriented towards senior safety specialists: candidates should have not less than 5 years’ expertise within the subject to take the examination. Utilization of CISSP-related content material dropped 0.23% 12 months over 12 months—in different phrases, it was primarily flat. A change this small is nearly definitely noise, however the lack of change might point out that CISSP has saturated its market.

In comparison with CISSP, the CompTIA Safety+ certification is geared toward entry- or mid-level safety practitioners; it’s a superb complement to the opposite CompTIA certifications, similar to Community+. Proper now, the demand for safety exceeds the availability, and that’s drawing new folks into the sector. This matches with the rise in using content material to organize for the CompTIA Safety+ examination, which grew 16% up to now 12 months. The CompTIA CSA+ examination (lately renamed the CYSA+) is a extra superior certification aimed particularly at safety analysts; it confirmed 37% progress.

Yr-over-year progress for safety certifications

Use of content material associated to the Licensed Moral Hacker certification dropped 5.9%. The explanations for this decline aren’t clear, provided that demand for penetration testing (one focus of moral hacking) is excessive. Nevertheless, there are numerous certifications particularly for penetration testers. It’s additionally price noting that penetration testing is ceaselessly a service offered by outdoors consultants. Most firms don’t have the price range to rent full-time penetration testers, and which will make the CEH certification much less engaging to folks planning their careers.

CBK isn’t an examination; it’s the framework of fabric round which the Worldwide Data System Safety Certification Consortium, extra generally often called (ISC)², builds its exams. With a 31% year-over-year improve for CBK content material, it’s one other clear signal that curiosity in safety as a occupation is rising. And although (ISC)²’s marquee certification, CISSP, has seemingly reached saturation, different (ISC)² certifications present clear progress: CCSP (Licensed Cloud Safety Skilled) grew 52%, and SSCP (Methods Safety Licensed Practitioner) grew 67%. Though these certifications aren’t as widespread, their progress is a vital development.


Knowledge is one other very broad class, encompassing every little thing from conventional enterprise analytics to synthetic intelligence. Knowledge engineering was the dominant subject by far, rising 35% 12 months over 12 months. Knowledge engineering offers with the issue of storing information at scale and delivering that information to purposes. It consists of transferring information to the cloud, constructing pipelines for buying information and getting information to software software program (usually in close to actual time), resolving the problems which are attributable to information siloed in numerous organizations, and extra.

Apache Spark, a platform for large-scale information processing, was essentially the most extensively used device, although using content material about Spark declined barely up to now 12 months (2.7%). Hadoop, which might have led this class a decade in the past, remains to be current, although utilization of content material about Hadoop dropped 8.3%; Hadoop has change into a legacy information platform.

Microsoft Energy BI has established itself because the main enterprise analytics platform; content material about Energy BI was essentially the most closely used, and achieved 31% year-over-year progress. NoSQL databases was second, with 7.6% progress—however needless to say NoSQL was a motion that spawned a lot of databases, with many various properties and designs. Our information reveals that NoSQL definitely isn’t useless, regardless of some claims on the contrary; it has clearly established itself. Nevertheless, the 4 high relational databases, if added collectively right into a single “relational database” subject, could be essentially the most closely used subject by a big margin. Oracle grew 18.2% 12 months over 12 months; Microsoft SQL Server grew 9.4%; MySQL grew 4.7%; and PostgreSQL grew 19%.

Use of content material about R, the extensively used statistics platform, grew 15% from 2021. Equally, utilization of content material about Pandas, essentially the most extensively used Python library for working with R-like information frames, grew 20%. It’s attention-grabbing that Pandas and R had roughly the identical utilization. Python and R have been competing (in a pleasant method) for the info science marketplace for practically 20 years. Primarily based on our utilization information, proper now it appears like a tie. R has barely extra market share, however Pandas has higher progress. Each are staples in educational analysis: R is extra of a “statistician’s workbench” with a complete set of statistical instruments, whereas Python and Pandas are constructed for programmers. The distinction has extra to do with customers’ tastes than substance although: R is a completely succesful programming language, and Python has glorious statistical and array-processing libraries.

Utilization for content material about information lakes and about information warehouses was additionally nearly equal, however information lakes utilization had a lot larger year-over-year progress (50% versus 3.9%). Knowledge lakes are a method for storing a corporation’s information in an unstructured repository; they got here into prominence a number of years in the past as a substitute for information warehouses. It could be helpful to match information lakes with information lakehouses and information meshes; these phrases aren’t in our taxonomy but.

Yr-over-year progress for information evaluation and database subjects

Synthetic intelligence

Initially of 2022, who would have thought that we’d be asking an AI-driven chat service to elucidate supply code (even when it sometimes makes up details)? Or that we’d have AI programs that allow nonartists to create works which are on a par with skilled designers (even when they’ll’t match Degas and Renoir)? But right here we’re, and we don’t have ChatGPT or generative AI in our taxonomy. The one factor that we are able to say is that 2023 will nearly definitely take AI even additional. How a lot additional no one is aware of.

For the previous two years, pure language processing (NLP) has been on the forefront of AI analysis, with the discharge of Open AI’s widespread instruments GPT-3 and ChatGPT together with related tasks from Google, Meta, and others that haven’t been launched. NLP has many industrial purposes, starting from automated chat servers to code technology (e.g., GitHub Copilot) to writing instruments. It’s not stunning that NLP content material was essentially the most considered and noticed vital year-over-year progress (42%). All of this progress is predicated on deep studying, which was the second-most-heavily-used subject, with 23% progress. Curiosity in reinforcement studying appears to be off (14% decline), although which will flip round as researchers attempt to develop AI programs which are extra correct and that may’t be tricked into hate speech. Reinforcement studying with human suggestions (RLHF) is one new approach that may result in better-behaved language fashions.

There was additionally comparatively little curiosity in content material about chatbots (a 5.8% year-over-year decline). This reversal appears counterintuitive, nevertheless it is smart looking back. The discharge of GPT-3 was a watershed occasion, an “every little thing you’ve achieved to this point is out-of-date” second. We’re enthusiastic about what is going to occur in 2023, although the outcomes will rely lots on how ChatGPT and its family are commercialized, as ChatGPT turns into a fee-based service, and each Microsoft and Google take steps in the direction of chat-based search.

Yr-over-year progress for synthetic intelligence subjects

Our studying platform provides some perception into the instruments builders and researchers are utilizing to work with AI. Primarily based on items considered, scikit-learn was the preferred library. It’s a comparatively previous device, nevertheless it’s nonetheless actively maintained and clearly appreciated by the neighborhood: utilization elevated 4.7% over the 12 months. Whereas utilization of content material about PyTorch and TensorFlow is roughly equal (PyTorch is barely forward), it’s clear that PyTorch now has momentum. PyTorch elevated 20%, whereas TensorFlow decreased 4.8%. Keras, a frontend library that makes use of TensorFlow, dropped 40%.

It’s disappointing to see so little utilization of content material on MLOps this 12 months, together with a slight drop (4.0%) from 2021 to 2022. One of many largest issues going through machine studying and synthetic intelligence is deploying purposes into manufacturing after which sustaining them. ML and AI purposes must be built-in into the deployment processes used for different IT purposes. That is the enterprise of MLOps, which presents a set of issues which are solely starting to be solved, together with versioning for big units of coaching information and automatic testing to find out when a mannequin has change into stale and desires retraining. Maybe it’s nonetheless too early, however these issues have to be addressed if ML and AI are to achieve the enterprise.

No-code and low-code instruments for AI don’t seem in our taxonomy, sadly. Our report AI Adoption within the Enterprise 2022 argues that AutoML in its numerous incarnations is regularly gaining traction. It is a development price watching. Whereas there’s little or no coaching out there on Google AutoML, Amazon AutoML, IBM AutoAI, Amazon SageMaker, and different low-code instruments, they’ll nearly definitely be an necessary pressure multiplier for skilled AI builders.

Infrastructure and Operations

Containers, Linux, and Kubernetes are the highest subjects inside infrastructure and operations. Containers sits on the high of the record (with 2.5% year-over-year progress), with Docker, the preferred container, in fifth place (with a 4.4% decline). Linux, the second most used subject, grew 4.4% 12 months over 12 months. There’s no shock right here; as we’ve been saying for a while, Linux is “desk stakes” for operations. Kubernetes is third, with 4.4% progress.

The containers subject is extraordinarily broad: it consists of a variety of content material that’s primarily about Docker but in addition content material about containers normally, alternate options to Docker (most notably Podman), container deployment, and lots of different subtopics. It’s clear that containers have modified the best way we deploy software program, significantly within the cloud. It’s additionally clear that containers are right here to remain. Docker’s small drop is price noting however isn’t a harbinger of change. Kubernetes deprecated direct Docker assist on the finish of 2020 in favor of the Container Runtime Interface (CRI). That change eradicated a direct tie between Kubernetes and Docker however doesn’t imply that containers constructed by Docker gained’t run on Kubernetes, since Docker helps the CRI commonplace. A extra convincing motive for the drop in utilization is that Docker is not new and builders and different IT workers are comfy with it. Docker itself could also be a smaller piece of the operations ecosystem, and it could have plateaued, nevertheless it’s nonetheless very a lot there.

Content material about Kubernetes was the third most generally considered on this group, and utilization grew 4.4% 12 months over 12 months. That comparatively sluggish progress might imply that Kubernetes is near a plateau. We more and more see complaints that Kubernetes is overly advanced, and we count on that, in the end, somebody will construct a container orchestration platform that’s less complicated, or that builders will transfer towards “managed” options the place a 3rd occasion (in all probability a cloud supplier) manages Kubernetes for them. One necessary a part of the Kubernetes ecosystem, the service mesh, is declining; content material about service mesh confirmed a 28% decline, whereas content material about Istio (the service mesh implementation most carefully tied to Kubernetes) declined 42%. Once more, service meshes (and particularly Istio) are extensively decried as too advanced. It’s indicative (and maybe alarming) that IT departments are resorting to “roll your individual” for a fancy piece of infrastructure that manages communications between companies and microservices (together with companies for safety). Options are rising. HashiCorp’s Consul and the open supply Linkerd mission are promising service meshes. UC Berkeley’s RISELab, which developed each Ray and Spark, lately introduced SkyPilot, a device with objectives much like Kubernetes however that’s specialised for information. Regardless of the end result, we don’t imagine that Kubernetes is the final phrase in container orchestration.

Yr-over-year progress for infrastructure and operations subjects

If there’s any device that defines “infrastructure as code,” it’s Terraform, which noticed 74% year-over-year progress. Terraform’s objectives are comparatively easy: You write a easy description of the infrastructure you need and the way you need that infrastructure configured. Terraform gathers the assets and configures them for you. Terraform can be utilized with all the main cloud suppliers, along with personal clouds (through OpenStack), and it’s confirmed to be an important device for organizations which are migrating to the cloud.

We took a separate take a look at the “steady” methodologies (also referred to as CI/CD): steady integration, steady supply, and steady deployment. General, this group confirmed an 18% year-over-year improve in items considered. This progress comes largely from an enormous (40%) improve in using content material about steady supply. Steady integration confirmed a 22% decline, whereas steady deployment had a 7.1% improve.

What does this inform us? The time period steady integration was first utilized by Grady Booch in 1991 and popularized by the Excessive Programming motion within the late Nineteen Nineties. It refers back to the observe of merging code modifications right into a single repository ceaselessly, testing at every iteration to make sure that the mission is at all times in a coherent state. Steady integration is tightly coupled to steady supply; you nearly at all times see CI/CD collectively. Steady supply is a observe that was developed on the second-generation internet firms, together with Flickr, Fb, and Amazon, which radically modified IT observe by staging software program updates for deployment a number of instances each day. With steady supply, deployment pipelines are totally automated, requiring solely a remaining approval to place a launch into manufacturing. Steady deployment is the latest (and smallest) of the three, emphasizing fully automated deployment to manufacturing: updates go straight from the developer into manufacturing, with none intervention. These methodologies are carefully tied to one another. CI/CD/CD as a complete (and sure, no one ever makes use of CD twice) is up 18% for the 12 months. That’s a big achieve, and although these subjects have been round for some time, it’s proof that progress remains to be attainable.

Yr-over-year progress for steady methodologies

IT and operations certifications

The main IT certification is clearly CompTIA, which confirmed a 41% year-over-year improve. The CompTIA household (Community+, A+, Linux+, and Safety+) dominates the certification market. (The CompTIA Community+ confirmed a really slight decline (0.32%), which might be simply random fluctuation.) The Linux+ certification skilled large year-over-year progress (47%). That progress is simple to grasp. Linux has lengthy been the dominant server working system. Within the cloud, Linux cases are way more extensively used than the alternate options, although Home windows is obtainable on Azure (after all) together with macOS. Previously few years, Linux’s market penetration has gone even deeper. We’ve already seen the position that containers are taking part in, and containers nearly at all times run Linux as their working system. In 1995, Linux may need been a unusual alternative for folks dedicated to free and open supply software program. In 2023, Linux is necessary for anybody in IT or software program growth. It’s exhausting to think about getting a job or advancing in a profession with out demonstrating competence.

Yr-over-year progress for IT certifications

It’s stunning to see the Cisco Licensed Community Affiliate (CCNA) certification drop 18% and the Cisco Licensed Community Skilled (CCNP) certification drop 12%, because the Cisco certifications have been among the many most significant and prestigious in IT for a few years. (The Cisco Licensed Web Knowledgeable (CCIE) certification, whereas comparatively small in comparison with the others, did present 70% progress.) There are a number of causes for this shift. First, as firms transfer workloads to the cloud or to colocation suppliers, sustaining a fleet of routers and switches turns into much less necessary. Community certifications are much less priceless than they was. However why then the rise in CCIE? Whereas CCNA is an entry-level certification and CCNP is center tier, CCIE is Cisco’s top-tier certification. The examination may be very detailed and rigorous and consists of hands-on work with community {hardware}. Therefore the comparatively small quantity of people that try it and research for it. Nevertheless, at the same time as firms offload a lot of their day-to-day community administration to the cloud, they nonetheless want individuals who perceive networks in depth. They nonetheless must take care of workplace networks, and with extending workplace networks to distant staff. Whereas they don’t want workers to wrangle racks of information middle routers, they do want community specialists who perceive what their cloud and colocation suppliers are doing. The necessity for community workers is perhaps shrinking, nevertheless it isn’t going away. In a shrinking market, attaining the best degree of certification may have essentially the most long-term worth.


We haven’t seen any vital shifts among the many main cloud suppliers. Amazon Internet Companies (AWS) nonetheless leads, adopted by Microsoft Azure, then Google Cloud. Collectively, this group represents 97% of cloud platform content material utilization. The larger story is that we noticed decreases in year-over-year utilization for all three. The decreases are small and won’t be vital: AWS is down 3.8%, Azure 7.5%, and Google Cloud 2.1%. We don’t know what’s liable for this decline. We regarded trade by trade; some had been up, some had been down, however there have been no smoking weapons. AWS confirmed a pointy drop in computer systems and electronics (about 27%), which is a comparatively giant class, and a smaller drop in finance and banking (15%), balanced by substantial progress in larger training (35%). There was a variety of volatility amongst industries that aren’t large cloud customers—for instance, AWS was up about 250% in agriculture—however utilization amongst industries that aren’t main cloud customers isn’t excessive sufficient to account for that change. (Agriculture accounts for effectively underneath 1% of whole AWS content material utilization.) The underside line is, as they are saying within the nightly monetary information, “Declines outnumbered positive factors”: 16 out of 28 enterprise classes confirmed a decline. Azure was related, with 20 industries exhibiting declines, though Azure noticed a slight improve for finance and banking. The identical was true for Google Cloud, although it benefited from an inflow of particular person (B2C) customers (up 9%).

Over the previous 12 months, there’s been some dialogue of “cloud repatriation”: bringing purposes which have moved to the cloud again in-house. Value is the best motivation for repatriation; firms transferring to the cloud have usually underestimated the prices, partly as a result of they haven’t succeeded in utilizing the cloud successfully. Whereas repatriation is little doubt liable for among the decline, it’s at most a small a part of the story. Cloud suppliers make it tough to depart, which sarcastically would possibly drive extra content material utilization as IT workers attempt to determine the best way to get their information again. An even bigger difficulty is perhaps firms which are placing cloud plans on maintain as a result of they hear of repatriation or which are suspending giant IT tasks as a result of they worry a recession.

Of the smaller cloud suppliers, IBM confirmed an enormous year-over-year improve (135%). Nearly all the change got here from a big improve in consulting {and professional} companies (200% progress 12 months over 12 months). Oracle confirmed a 36% lower, nearly completely as a result of a drop in content material utilization from the software program trade (down 49%). Nevertheless, the truth that Oracle is exhibiting up in any respect demonstrates that it’s grown considerably over the previous few years. Oracle’s high-profile deal to host all of TikTok’s information on US residents might simply solidify the corporate’s place as a big cloud supplier. (Or it might backfire if TikTok is banned.)

We didn’t embody two smaller suppliers within the graph: Heroku (now owned by Salesforce) and Cloud Foundry (initially VMware, handed off to the corporate’s Pivotal subsidiary after which to the Cloud Foundry Basis; now, a number of suppliers run Cloud Foundry software program). Each noticed pretty sharp year-over-year declines: 10% for Heroku, 26% for Cloud Foundry. So far as items considered, Cloud Foundry is nearly on a par with IBM. However Heroku isn’t even on the charts; it seems to be a service whose time has handed. We additionally omitted Tencent and Alibaba Cloud; they’re not in our topic taxonomy, and comparatively little content material is offered.

Yr-over-year progress for cloud suppliers

Cloud certifications adopted the same sample. AWS certifications led, adopted by Azure, adopted by Google Cloud. We noticed the identical puzzling year-over-year decline right here: 13% for AWS certification, 10% for Azure, and 6% for Google Cloud. And once more, the drop was smallest for Google Cloud.

Whereas utilization of content material about particular cloud suppliers dropped from 2021 to 2022, utilization for content material about different cloud computing subjects grew. Cloud migration, a reasonably common class for content material about constructing cloud purposes, grew 45%. Cloud service fashions additionally grew 41%. These will increase might assist us to grasp why utilization of content material in regards to the “large three” clouds decreased. As cloud utilization strikes past early adopters and turns into mainstream, the dialog naturally focuses much less on particular person cloud suppliers and extra on high-level points. After a number of pilot tasks and proofs of idea, studying about AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud is much less necessary than planning a full-scale migration. How do you deploy to the cloud? How do you construct companies within the cloud? How do you combine purposes you could have moved to the cloud with legacy purposes which are staying in-house? At this level, firms know the fundamentals and must go the remainder of the best way.

Yr-over-year progress for cloud certifications

With this in thoughts, it’s by no means stunning that our clients are very fascinated by hybrid clouds, for which content material utilization grew 28% 12 months over 12 months. Our customers understand that each firm will inevitably evolve towards a hybrid cloud. Both there’ll be a wildcat skunkworks mission on some cloud that hasn’t been “blessed” by IT, or there’ll be an acquisition of an organization that’s utilizing a distinct supplier, or they’ll must combine with a enterprise accomplice utilizing a distinct supplier, or they don’t have the price range to maneuver their legacy purposes and information, or… The explanations are infinite, however the conclusion is similar: hybrid is inevitable, and in lots of firms it’s already the fact.

The rise in use of content material about personal clouds (37%) is a part of the identical story. Many firms have purposes and information which have to stay in-house (whether or not that’s bodily on-premises or hosted at an information middle providing colocation). It nonetheless is smart for these purposes to make use of APIs and deployment toolchains equal to these used within the cloud. “The cloud” isn’t the exception; it has change into the rule.

Yr-over-year progress for cloud structure subjects

Skilled Abilities

Previously 12 months, O’Reilly customers have been very fascinated by upgrading their skilled and administration abilities. Each class on this comparatively small group is up, and most of them are up considerably. Undertaking administration noticed 47% year-over-year progress; skilled growth grew 37%. Use of content material in regards to the Undertaking Administration Skilled (PMP) certification grew 36%, and curiosity in product administration grew equally (39%). Curiosity in communication abilities elevated 26% and curiosity in management grew by 28%. The 2 remaining classes that we tracked, IT administration and important pondering, weren’t as giant and grew by considerably smaller quantities (21% and 20%, respectively).

A number of elements drive these will increase. For a very long time, software program growth and IT operations had been seen as solo pursuits dominated by “neckbeards” and delinquent nerds, with some “rock stars” and “10x programmers” thrown in. This stereotype is unsuitable and dangerous—not simply to people however to groups and firms. Previously few years, we’ve heard lots much less about 10x builders and extra in regards to the significance of excellent communication, management, and mentoring. Our clients have realized that the important thing to productiveness is sweet teamwork, not some legendary 10x developer. And there are definitely many staff who see positions in administration, as a “tech lead,” as a product supervisor, or as a software program architect, as the plain subsequent step of their careers. All of those positions stress the so-called “comfortable abilities.” Lastly, discuss a recession has been on the rise for the previous 12 months, and we proceed to see giant layoffs from large firms. Whereas software program builders and IT operations workers are nonetheless in excessive demand, and there’s no scarcity of jobs, many are definitely attempting to accumulate new abilities to enhance their job safety or to offer themselves higher choices within the occasion that they’re laid off.

Yr-over-year progress for skilled abilities subjects

Internet Improvement

The React and Angular frameworks proceed to dominate internet growth. The steadiness is continuous to shift towards React (10% year-over-year progress) and away from Angular (a 17% decline). Many frontend builders really feel that React provides higher efficiency and is extra versatile and simpler to be taught. Many new frameworks (and frameworks constructed on frameworks) are in play (Vue, Subsequent.js, Svelte, and so forth), however none are near turning into opponents. Vue confirmed a big year-over-year decline (17%), and the others didn’t make it onto the chart.

PHP remains to be a contender, after all, with nearly no change (a decline of 1%). PHP advocates declare that 80% of the net is constructed on it: Fb is constructed on PHP, for example, together with tens of millions of WordPress websites. Nonetheless, it’s exhausting to have a look at PHP and say that it’s not a legacy know-how. Ruby on Rails grew 6.6%. Content material utilization for Ruby on Rails is much like PHP, however Rails utilization has been declining for some years. Is it poised for a comeback?

The usage of content material about JavaScript confirmed a slight decline (4.6%), however we don’t imagine that is vital. In our taxonomy, content material can solely be tagged with one subject, and every little thing that covers React or Angular is implicitly about JavaScript. As well as, it’s attention-grabbing to see utilization of TypeScript rising (12%); TypeScript is a strongly typed variant of JavaScript that compiles (the precise phrase is definitely “transpiles”) to JavaScript, and it’s proving to be a greater device for big advanced purposes.

One necessary development reveals up on the backside of the graph. WebAssembly remains to be a small subject, nevertheless it noticed 74% progress from 2020 to 2021. And Blazor, Microsoft’s implementation of C# and .NET for WebAssembly, is up 59%. That’s a strong sign. These subjects are nonetheless small, but when they’ll preserve that sort of progress, they gained’t be small for lengthy. WebAssembly is poised to change into an necessary a part of internet growth.

Yr-over-year progress for internet growth subjects


The heaviest utilization within the design class went to consumer expertise and associated subjects. Person expertise grew 18%, consumer analysis grew 5%, interface design grew 92%, and interplay design grew 36%. For years, we anticipated software program to be tough and uncomfortable to make use of. That’s modified. Apple made consumer interface design a precedence early within the early 2000s, forcing different firms to observe in the event that they wished to stay aggressive. The design pondering motion might not be within the information, nevertheless it’s had an impact: software program groups take into consideration design from the start. Even software program builders who don’t have the phrase “design” of their job title want to consider and perceive design effectively sufficient to construct first rate consumer interfaces and nice consumer experiences.

Usability, the one user-centric subject to indicate a decline, was solely down 2.6%. It’s additionally price noting that use of content material about accessibility has grown 96%. Accessibility remains to be a comparatively small class, however that sort of progress reveals that accessibility is a side of consumer expertise that may not be ignored. (The usage of alt textual content for photographs is just one instance: it’s change into frequent on Twitter and is nearly common on Mastodon.)

Data structure was down considerably (a 17% drop). Does that imply that curiosity has shifted from designing info circulation to designing experiences, and is {that a} good factor?

Use of content material about digital and augmented actuality is comparatively small however grew 83%. The previous 12 months noticed a variety of pleasure round VR, Web3, the metaverse, and associated subjects. Towards the top of the 12 months, that appeared to chill off. Nevertheless, an 83% improve is noteworthy. Will that proceed? It could rely on a brand new technology of VR merchandise, each {hardware} and software program. If Apple could make VR glasses which are comfy and that folks can put on with out trying like aliens, 83% progress may appear small.

Yr-over-year progress for design subjects

The Future

We began out by saying that this trade doesn’t change as a lot from 12 months to 12 months as most individuals suppose. That’s true, however that doesn’t imply there’s no change. There are alerts of necessary new traits—some fully new, some continuations of traits that began years in the past. So what small modifications are harbingers of larger modifications within the years to come back?

The Go and Rust programming languages have proven vital progress each up to now 12 months and for the previous few years. There’s no signal that this progress will cease. It would take a number of extra years, however earlier than lengthy they’ll be on a par with Java and Python.

It’s no shock that we noticed enormous positive factors for pure language processing and deep studying. GPT-3 and its successor ChatGPT are the present stars of the present. Whereas there’s been a variety of discuss one other “AI winter,” that isn’t going to occur. The success of ChatGPT (to not point out Secure Diffusion, Midjourney, and lots of tasks happening at Meta and Google) will hold winter away, not less than for one more 12 months. What’s going to folks construct on high of ChatGPT and its successors? What new programming instruments will we see? How will the that means of “laptop programming” change if AI assistants take over the duty of writing code? What new analysis instruments will change into out there, and can our new AI assistants persist in “making stuff up”? For a number of years now, AI has been essentially the most thrilling space in software program. There’s tons to think about, tons to construct, and infinite house for innovation. So long as the AI neighborhood supplies thrilling new outcomes, nobody will likely be complaining and nobody want worry the chilly.

We’ve additionally seen a robust improve in curiosity in management, administration, communication, and different “comfortable abilities.” This curiosity isn’t new, nevertheless it’s definitely rising. Whether or not the present technology of programmers is getting uninterested in coding or whether or not they understand comfortable abilities as giving them higher job safety throughout a recession isn’t for us to say. It’s definitely true that higher communication abilities are an asset for any mission.

Our viewers is barely much less fascinated by content material in regards to the “large three” cloud suppliers (AWS, Azure, and Google Cloud), however they’re nonetheless tremendously fascinated by migrating to the cloud and profiting from cloud choices. Regardless of many studies claiming that cloud adoption is nearly common (and I confess to writing a few of them), I’ve lengthy believed that we’re solely within the early phases of cloud adoption. We’re now previous the preliminary stage, throughout which an organization would possibly declare that it was “within the cloud” on the idea of some trial tasks. Cloud migration is critical enterprise. We count on to see a brand new wave of cloud adoption. Corporations in that wave gained’t make naive assumptions in regards to the prices of utilizing the cloud, they usually’ll have the instruments to optimize their cloud utilization. This new wave might not break till fears of a recession finish, however it should come.

Whereas the top-level safety class grew 20%, we’d hoped to see extra. For a very long time, safety was an afterthought, not a precedence. That’s altering, however slowly. Nevertheless, we noticed enormous positive factors for zero belief and governance. It’s unlucky that these positive factors are pushed by necessity (and the information cycle), however maybe the message is getting by means of in spite of everything.

What about augmented and digital actuality (AR/VR), the metaverse, and different stylish subjects that dominated a lot of the commerce press? Curiosity in VR/AR content material grew considerably, although what which means for 2023 is anybody’s guess. Lengthy-term, the class in all probability is dependent upon whether or not or not anybody could make AR glasses a style accent that everybody must have. An even bigger query is whether or not anybody can construct a next-generation internet that’s decentralized, and that fosters immediacy and collaboration with out requiring unique goggles. That’s clearly one thing that may be achieved: look no additional than Figma (for collaboration), Mastodon (for decentralization), or Petals (for a cloud-less cloud).

Will these be the massive tales for 2023? February is simply simply starting; we now have 11 months to search out out.


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